More and more systems are being connected to share information, and IP networks provide a very cost-effective solution. One physical network can be used to connect many different devices. The water company can use a computer interface to control the water pumps and valves at treatment plants and throughout the distribution system. The natural gas and electric providers can do the same. Hospitals connect medical devices throughout the facility to central monitoring stations. A few people in one room can watch all the ICU patients. Fire departments, law enforcement and EMS can use a wireless network to communication, dispatch units, provide navigation, and track vehicle telematics to manage maintenance cycles.
All networks do not need to lead to the internet, however this is rare and needs to be specifically designed into the system when it is being designed. Having a physically separate system does provide the best security if all the data is being kept internal to that network. Remember that internal-only networks are still subject to security issues from internal threats.
Any network or device that does have an internet connection is subject to external attacks through that connection. A malicious hacker can break into the water treatment system and change the valves to contaminate drinking water. They could open all the gates on a dam flooding downstream communities. They could reroute electrical paths to overload circuits or such down other areas. They could change the programming so dispatchers are sending the farthest unit instead of the nearest, or create false dispatch instructions.
Cyber attacks can disable systems but they can also create real-world disasters. First responders are trained to consider secondary-devices during intentionally started emergencies. What if that secondary-device is a cyber attack, or a cyber attack precedes a real event? During the September 2001 attacks in New York City, a secondary effect of the plane hitting the tower was the crippling of the first responder’s radio system. Imagine if a cyber attack was coordinate with the plane’s impact. The attackers could turn all traffic lights to green which could cause traffic accidents at nearly all intersection. This would snarl traffic and prevent the first responders from getting to the towers.
A side step on the use of the term hacker. A hacker is anyone that hacks together a technical or electronics solution in an uncommon way. I explain it as “MacGyver’ing” a solution. There is no positive or negative connotation in the term used that way. Hacker also describes a person that breaks into computer systems by bypassing security. A more accurate description is calling them a cracker, like a safe cracker. This type of hacker is divided into criminals (black hats) and ethical hackers (white hats). Ethical hackers are people who test computer security by attempting to break into systems.
By now, you’re probably aware of the Anonymous hacker group. They have been collectively getting more organized and increasing in actions that drive toward internet freedom since 2008. Often they’re called “hacktivists” meaning they hack to protest. There are many more malicious hackers out there with different agendas: status, economic, political, religious … any reason people might disagree could be a reason for a hacker.
Somewhere on the internet is a team of highly trained cyber ninjas that are constantly probing devices for openings. They use a combination of attack forms including social engineering (phishing) attacks. Automated tools probe IP addresses in a methodically efficient manner. The brute force method is used to test common passwords on accounts across many logins. Worms and Trojans are sent out to gather information and get behind defenses. Any found weaknesses will be exploited.
Pew Internet reports that 79% of adults have access to the internet and two-thirds of American adults have broadband internet in their home. The lower cost of computers and internet access has dramatically increase the number of Americans online. The stand-alone computer connected to the internet has forced the home user to have the role of the system administrator, software analyst, hardware engineer, and information security specialist. The must be prepared to stop the dynamic onslaught of cyber ninjas, yet are only armed with the tools pre-loaded on the computer or off-the-shelf security software.
Organizations are in a better and worse position. The enterprise network can afford full-time professionals to ensure the software is updated, the security measures meet the emerging threats, and professional resources to share information with peers. Enterprise networks are also a larger target; especially to increase the online reputation of a hacker.
During a disaster, there will be many hastily formed networks. The nature of rushed work increases the number of errors and loopholes in technical systems.
During the Haiti Earthquake response, malware and viruses were common across the shared NGO networks. The lack of security software on all of the laptops created major problems. Some organizations purchased laptops and brought them on-scene without any preloaded security software. Other organizations hadn’t used their response computers in over a year, so no recent security patches to the operating systems or updates to the anti-virus software was done. USB sticks move data from computer to computer, bypassing any network-level protections. The spread of malware and viruses across the networked caused problems and delays.
There are a number of key factors when designing a technology system that will be used in response that differ from traditional IT installations. One of the most important considerations is a way for the system to be installed in a consistent manner by people with minimal technical skills. Pre-configuration will ensure that the equipment is used efficiently and in the most secure manner.
- Verizon. 2011 Data Breach Investigations Report. http://www.verizonbusiness.com/resources/reports/rp_data-breach-investigations-report-2011_en_xg.pdf (Note: this report is updated annually)
- McAfee: Threat Intelligence. http://www.mcafee.com/us/mcafee-labs/threat-intelligence.aspx
- U.S. Computer Emergency Readiness Team. http://www.us-cert.gov/
- U.S. Computer Emergency Readiness Team. Cyber Sercurity Tip ST04-001: Why is cyber security a problem? http://www.us-cert.gov/cas/tips/ST04-001.html
- U.S. Computer Emergency Readiness Team. Introduction to information security. http://www.us-cert.gov/reading_room/infosecuritybasics.pdf